In the name of God
Major (Course): Nanophysics
Introduction: The appropriate laws of nanometer-scale physics: "nanophysics", predict behavior of matter on this invisible scale. Physical behavior at the nanometer scale is predicted accurately by quantum mechanics, represented by Schrodingers equation. Schrodingers equation provides a quantitative understanding of the structure and properties of atoms. Chemical matter, molecules, and even the cells of biology, being made of atoms, are therefore, in principle, accurately described (given enough computing power) by this well tested formulation of nanophysics. The idea of the limiting size scale of a miniaturized technology is fundamentally interesting for several reasons. As sizes approach the atomic scale, the relevant physical laws change from the classical to the quantum-mechanical laws of nanophysics. The changes in behavior from classical, to "mesoscopic", to atomic scale, are broadly understood in contemporary physics, but the details in specific cases are complex and need to be worked out. While the changes from classical physics to nanophysics may mean that some existing devices will fail, the same changes open up possibilities for new devices .
 E. L. Wolf, Nanophysics and Nanotechnology, 2nd ed., Wiley-VCH, 2006.